Hyena or hyenas are relevant to the Hyaenidae family, the prime suborder of the Carnivora. It has four species ( Spotted hyena, striped hyena, brown hyena and aardwolf hyena) and the fifth-smallest biological family in the Carnivora family. It’s one of the smallest in the Mammalia’s class.
- The Scientific name of Hyena is Hyaenidae.
- We can keep them in the family segment as Rank.
- The mass of Spotted, Adult, Male, Zambia population is on an average is : 68 kg
- The Lower classifications of them are Hyaena, Crocuta, Proteles
- The lifespan of Striped hyena, In Wild is 12 yrs and in Zoo is 13 yrs on an average.
- The Height of Brown hyena, Adult, At Shoulder are 70 – 80 cm.
Initially they grow in Eurasia during the Miocene period-like ancestors. They developed into the lightly built dog-like and the robust bone-crushing. 15 million years ago the dog-like species prospered in North America and got died with a change in the climate. The extermination had occurred along with a arrival of a another species of the dog like genealogy in Eurasia. only the insectivorous aardwolf survived, while the bone-crushing species (whose extant members are the spotted, brown and striped hyenas) became the undisputed top scavengers of Eurasia and Africa.
- They are generally hunting at night and early morning.
- Aardwolves eat termites.
- The female is much stronger and dominant then male.
- Both male and female are sharp hunters.
- They are using different signals, postures and sounds to communicate with each other.one of the most common sound that they produce is laughter.
- When they are young, they attacks on the other same species and eat them.
- They mark their territory with a white material produced from the anal gland. this material has a very strong smell and inform other’s that this territory has already occupied.
- It’s very difficult to identify their gender as both male or female are similar gential.
- This species can take 90 to 110 days to give birth. one female can give birth 2 to 4 cubs at a time. she take care of them in a den which reserved for the mother and the new born. she take care of their new born till 04 weeks.
- They feed their cubs for 12 to 18 months. cubs start eating the meet at the age of 05 months.
- They live 12 years in the wild and 25 years in the captivity.
They are varying according to their size. there is slightly difference among the species. with 35″ in height and approx 90 pound in weight Spotted Hyena is the largest. the insect killer Aardwolves is the smallest in this category with a configuration of 20″ in heights and approx 60 pound in weight.
In the consideration with the behavior of other species their grooming, scent marking, defecating habits, mating, and parental behavior are more consistent. Although They are having long reputation as a cowardly scavengers especially spotted hyenas. They kill approximately 95% of the food they eat. They are also popular to drive off lionesses and leopards far away from the animals which they killed. They are vesper- tine animals generally but also dare to leave their lairs in the early-morning hours to do hunting.They are generally congregate at hunting and live in groups.
At the anal opening, a male has a naked skin. Above the anus, the anal gland open in the naked skin. The anal gland ejected about approx 05 cm and the time of mating and social interaction. The female dominate the male hyena for mating. The mating season is non seasonal in the captivity. on the other hand in the wild mating season is different as per the location.
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|Spotted Hyena Mating||Striped Hyena Mating|
Hyena Gestation period
The gestation period is for approx 190 days. The male search the den for the female. The cubs belong to the striped hyena born with small ears, closed eyes and adult marking whereas the spotted cubs born full developed and open their eyes in a week. Cubs left the den in a month.
Hyenas feature are primarily describe in the folklore and mythology. In the human cultures they are includes with which they are sympathetic. In the human culture they are viewed with fear and contempt, also being used for witchcraft. Their body parts are mostly used as a special ingredients in the traditional medicines. There are also some beliefs among some cultures that they are thought to rob graves and influence people’s spirits. They kill children and livestock.
To keep a Hyena as a pet is not easy thing. They is scavenger, a dangerous animal who are not been happy in captivity. In simple condition’s it’s not a good domestic companion. They require extensive training and a muzzle to keep them calm. They are muzzled all the time to ignore any loss of human and property. In the wild they take huge time to be a good hunter and if they kept as pet they deprived from such practice which cause a death sentence for them in case if they release in any condition. If they release for the captivity in any conditions, there is a threat to carry some new disease from the captivity to the wild.
On the contrary some research shows that In case of any communication or solve any problem a pair of this species is perform very silently. They did this via non-verbal communication.
|Brown Hyena||Brown with black spots on the leg.|
|Striped Hyena||Beige with dark black strips|
|Spotted Hyena||Brown with black spots|
|Aardwolf||Beige with broad spaced black strips|
The eyes of a hyena is small and brown in color and glow brightly at the time of night. They has very good night vision, they can see very clear at night that’s why they leave their den to hunt in the night or in the early morning.
The eye sight of the species is very accurate and very helpful while hunting at night.
To living and venture in groups is in their habitat and they uses several communication methods to communicate among the group. laughing sound is one of the premier communication way which they use. Enjoy their laughing sound though the videos given below.
Their laugh is look like a giggle and this giggle is very loud with a ” hee hee hee” sound as a human do. Spotted hyena generally use this sound of laugh while hunting.
This apecies is generally a social species who live in groups. due to their number and physical strength they dominant it’s territory. Their jaw is as strong as it break a springbot leg bone after five minute of birth. Somehow a lion create some danger for the cub other wise normally they are the pioneer because of their number and strength.
By nature hyena are carrion eaters and require prey for cripple, older and cubes. due to such habit and eat carrion their immune system suffered by bacteria and virus a lot. we can consider bacteria and virus one of their main enemy. Human is also effect them badly. Either intentionally or accidentally human give poison to them.we can also keep human in the list of the enemies.
Leopard Vs Hyena
They belongs to the Hyaenidae family and look like the dogs. both leopard and hyena having the same weight group i.e. 35 to 90 kg. Comparatively leopard are very much agile then this species. they are very smart hunters. leopard has strong legs with sharp paws and sharp claws whereas They has much high forelegs and short behind legs, a thick neck and strong jaw which bite anything even a bone.
Despite such advantage a hyena is a known as a cowered animal. A few of them can stand in front of leopard over food but it depends upon size, age, experience and sex.
Hyena vs Dog
In several aspects Hyenas are very similar to dogs according to the behaviourally and morphologically. Some of the similarities are as under :-
- Both of them hyenas and canines are non-arboreal.
- Both are catch prey with their sharp and strong teeth’s instead of their claws, which keep them in the Crafty hunters class.
- Both of them finish their food very quickly. They may store their food.
- They have rigid feet with large and non-retractable nails which are really helpful and adapted for running and taking sharp turns.